Lasting
Impressions

Lasting Impressions: Monumental Brass Rubbings

Haverford College
October 26, 2013 to January 10, 2014

This student-curated exhibit, developed by the John P. Chesick Scholars Program and the Libraries, celebrates the inauguration of Dan Weiss as Haverford College’s 14th president. The exhibit features brass rubbings made by Maxine and David Cook ’64 and given to the college. We also thank Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore College for contributing treasures to the exhibit. The brass rubbings have been divided into five themes. The introduction is located in Magill Library, family and marriage in Stokes Hall, identity and self in the Whitehead Campus Center, power and social rank in Founders Hall, and spirituality and the afterlife in the KINSC.

Click here to view the exhibit pamphlet

Main Menu Credits and Bibliography

Lasting
Impressions

Credits and Bibliography

Credits

Donors

Maxine and David Cook ’64 made the brass rubbings in Germany in 1971 and the United Kingdom in 1973. In 2013 they donated the David C. Cook HC’64 and Maxine Cook Collection of Monumental Brass Rubbings to Magill Library for use in teaching and research.

Student Contributors

Mohamed Abdalkader, Haverford '14, mobile application
Rachel Davies, Haverford '16, exhibit content
James McInerney, University of King's College, exhibit content
Karl Moll, Haverford '14, mobile application
Blair Rush Haverford '16, mobile application
Shannon Smith, Haverford '15, exhibit content

Other Contributors

Laurie Allen, Coordinator for Digital Scholarship
John Anderies, Head of Special Collections
Bruce Bumbarger, Library Conservator
Dan Burger-Lenehan, Senior Administrative Assistant
David Cook, Library conservation volunteer
Maxine Cook, Editorial volunteer
Thomas Izbicki, Latin translator
Margaret Schaus, Lead Research and Instruction Librarian
Terry Snyder, Director of the Library
Mike Zarafonetis, Digital Scholarship Librarian

Advisors

Sorelle Friedler, Visiting Assistant Professor of Computer Science
Lisa McCormick, Assistant Professor of Sociology
Maud McInerney, Associate Professor of English
Carol Solomon, Visiting Associate Professor of Independent College Programs
Susan Mosher Stuard, Emeritus Professor of History

Collaborators

Phil Bean, Dean of Academic Affairs, Associate Dean of the College
Jesse Lytle, Chief of Staff, President's Office
Jeff Tecosky-Feldman, Director of the John P. Chesick Scholars Program and Senior Lecturer in Mathematics

Bibliography

Badham. Sally and Malcolm Norris. 1999. Early Incised Slabs and Brasses from the London Marblers. London: Society of Antiquaries of London.

Bennett, Judith. 2008. “Two Women and their Monumental Brass, c. 1480.” Journal of the British Archaeological Association 161: 163-184.

Bertram, Jerome, ed. 1996. Monumental Brasses as Art and History. Phoenix Mill, England: Alan Sutton.

Brass Rubbings Collection. 2013. Hamline University. http://www.hamline.edu/ brass-rubbings/.

British History Online. 2013. University of London and History of Parliament. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/.

Coales, John, ed. 1987. The Earliest English Brasses: Patronage, Style, and Workshops, 1270-1350. London: Monumental Brass Society.

Crane, Susan. 2002. The Performance of Self: Ritual, Clothing, and Identity during the Hundred Years War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Davis, Isabel. 2011. “’The Trinite is our everlasting lover’: Marriage and Trinitarian Love in the Later Middle Ages.” Speculum 86, 4: 914-963.

Grant, Francis J. 1929. Manual of Heraldry. Edinburgh: John Grant.

Hutchinson, Robert. 2003. “’Tombs of brass are spent’: Reformation Reuse of Monumental Brasses.” In The Archaeology of Reformation 1480–1580, edited by David Gaimster and Roberta Gilchrist, 450-468. Leeds: Maney.

Lindley, Phillip. 2007. Tomb Destruction and Scholarship: Medieval Monuments in Early Modern England. Donington: Shaun Tyas.

Meara, David. 2008. Modern Memorial Brasses 1880–2001. Donington: Shaun Tyas.

Norris, M. W. 1956 “The Schools of Brasses in Germany.” Journal of the British Archaeological Association 3rd series 19: 34-52.

Norris, Malcolm. 1978. Monumental Brasses: The Craft. London and Boston: Faber and Faber.

____. 1977. Monumental Brasses: The Memorials I and II. London: Phillips and Page.

Orme, Nicholas. 2001. Medieval Children. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Owen-Crocker, Gale, Elizabeth Coatsworth, and Maria Hayward. 2012.

Encyclopaedia of Medieval Dress and Textiles of British Isles, C. 450–1450. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Oxford Art Online. 2013. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordartonline. com/subscriber/.

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 2004. Oxford University Press; online edn. http://www.oxforddnb.com/.

Saul, Nigel. 2001. Death, Art, and Memory in Medieval England: The Cobham Family and Their Monuments, 1300–1500. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

____. 2006. “The Contract for the Brass of Richard Willoughby (d. 1471) at Wollaton (Notts.)” Nottingham Medieval Studies 50: 166-193.

____. 2009. English Church Monuments in the Middle Ages: History and Representation. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Scott, Margaret, Jane Ashelford, Aileen Ribeiro, and Vanda Foster. 1986. A Visual History of Costume: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. London: Batsford; New York: Drama Book Publishers.

Sherlock, Peter. 2008. Monuments and Memory in Early Modern England. Aldershot, England and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate.

Lasting
Impressions

Introduction Identity and Self Spirituality and the Afterlife Power and Social Rank Family and Marriage

Lasting
Impressions

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Family and Marriage

Inscriptions on brass monuments asked passersby to pray for the deceased’s salvation. Souls in purgatory benefited from the prayers of the living and the intercession of saints. Lay religion took new forms in the 14th and 15th centuries with the widespread use of books of hours. Gentry and nobles could recite prayers in a regular cycle like monks and nuns, reflecting on spiritual truths and preparing for the afterlife. On their tombs they represented themselves attentively in prayer, a witness to their piety and a reminder to the living of their duty and ultimate fate. In later years, Protestantism profoundly shaped religious beliefs and practices.

Swipe through the gallery below and select a rubbing to view more information, touch points of interest, and see related images for each.





Lasting
Impressions

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Introduction

Monumental brasses, produced in large numbers from the 13th through the 17th centuries, serve as a fascinating window into those eras. They fulfilled three functions: soliciting prayers for the deceased, preserving their memory and attesting to their social status. These figures illuminate the history of heraldry, armor and costume. In the early 13th century, Church doctrine recast Purgatory as a place of purification. Tomb figures then became more desirable, reminding visitors to pray for the deceased, since prayers enabled their release from Purgatory’s pains.

Swipe through the gallery below and select a rubbing to view more information, touch points of interest, and see related images for each.



Lasting
Impressions

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Identity and Self

Brass images are unique, representing individuals -sometimes particularized like a portrait and other times an idealized beauty. The details of clothing and armor are observed, indicating the latest fashions: buttons down the sleeves of a woman’s gown or a man’s hairy head emerging from a tournament helmet. There was an appreciation for these luxuries and the personal pleasures they brought despite clerical misgivings. Recognition of the individual is also seen in the changing portrayal of children. On 14th century monuments, boys and girls are represented as an undifferentiated group, but by the late 16th century artists were producing closely observed portraits of children.

Swipe through the gallery below and select a rubbing to view more information, touch points of interest, and see related images for each.



Lasting
Impressions

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Power and Social Rank

The gentry and nobility occupied elevated social ranks and expressed their status in various ways including finely wrought tombs. John Cobham emphasized his achievements by holding a building he had commissioned. Clerics memorialized their status, both familial and ecclesiastical. In other situations, power is notable by its loss. Eleanor de Bohun, a fabulously wealthy heiress, married the king’s youngest son; yet in her monument, she is dressed simply as a widow. She withdrew from public life after her husband’s murder. The transitory nature of power was symbolized by the wheel of fortune. It suggests the anxiety people felt about misfortunes which could disrupt rank and power.

Swipe through the gallery below and select a rubbing to view more information, touch points of interest, and see related images for each.



Lasting
Impressions

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Spirituality and the Afterlife

Inscriptions on brass monuments asked passersby to pray for the deceased’s salvation. Souls in purgatory benefited from the prayers of the living and the intercession of saints. Lay religion took new forms in the 14th and 15th centuries with the widespread use of books of hours. Gentry and nobles could recite prayers in a regular cycle like monks and nuns, reflecting on spiritual truths and preparing for the afterlife. On their tombs they represented themselves attentively in prayer, a witness to their piety and a reminder to the living of their duty and ultimate fate. In later years, Protestantism profoundly shaped religious beliefs and practices.

Swipe through the gallery below and select a rubbing to view more information, touch points of interest, and see related images for each.



Related Images

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John d’Abernon III

St. Mary's Church at Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey (interior)

Permission granted by Graham Field

John d'Abernon III

Brass monument of John d'Abernon III

With the permission of the Medieval Combat Society

John d'Abernon III

St. Mary's Church, Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey (exterior).

With the permission of the photographer Peter Reed ©.

John d'Abernon III

Drawing of John de Abernon's brass.

John d'Abernon III

Illustration of John de Cobham's seal on the wall at Cooling Castle at Cooling, Kent.

John d’Abernon II

St. Mary's Church at Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey (interior)

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John d’Abernon II

St. Mary's Church at Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey (exterior).

John d’Abernon II

Close-up of the brass monument of John d'Abernon II

John d’Abernon II

Rubbing - close-up of John d'Abernon II

John d’Abernon II

Illustration of John d'Abernon II's monument including his shield and footrest

Anne Urswick

The Urswycks' brass monument

Anne Urswick

The interior of St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset is in partial view. Two other tomb monuments are visible.

Permission granted by Graham Field

Anne Urswick

St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset (interior).

Anne Urswick

Drawing of Lady Urswyck, Sir Thomas Urswyck, shields, and their children.

Anne Urswick

St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset (exterior).

Anne Urswick

Urswycks' tomb chest.

Heinrich Spiegel zum Desenberg

Paderborn Cathedral at Paderborn, North Rhine-Westphalia (interior).

Heinrich Spiegel zum Desenberg

Brass rubbing of Heinrich Spiegel von Desenberg's monument including two shields and an inscription around the frame.

Heinrich Spiegel zum Desenberg

Paderborn Cathedral at Paderborn, North Rhine-Westphalia (exterior)

Heinrich Spiegel zum Desenberg

17th C. illustration of Schloß Neuhaus, Residence of the Prince-Bishop of Paderborn, 1370-1802

Elizabeth Burrough

Drawing of manor house of Mockings at Tottenham, a property of John Burrough

Elizabeth Burrough

Elizabeth's husband John Burrough. The tomb inscription shows that only she was buried there.

Elizabeth Burrough

Brass rubbing of the daughters of Elizabeth Burrough, Church of All Hollows

Elizabeth Burrough

Brass rubbing of the sons of Elizabeth Burrough, Church of All Hollows

John Hawberk, Son of Nicholas Hawberk

Brass monument of Nicholas Hawberk including his son, parts of the inscription, the footrest, and part of the canopy.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John Hawberk, Son of Nicholas Hawberk

Brass rubbing of the monument including Nicholas Hawberk, the canopy, the inscription, and other figures.

John Hawberk, Son of Nicholas Hawberk

Church of St. Mary Magdalene (exterior).

Reproduced by permission of the Medieval Combat Society.

John Hawberk, Son of Nicholas Hawberk

Church of St. Mary Magdalene (interior).

Reproduced by permission of the Medieval Combat Society.

John Hawberk, Son of Nicholas Hawberk

Monument of Sir Reginald Braybrooke, second husband of Joan, Lady of Cobham, and his two sons.

Reproduced by permission of Hamline University.

Joan Skern

Painting of All Saints Church at Kingston upon Thames (exterior) from 1900.

Joan Skern

Drawing of Joan and Robert Skern.

Joan Skern

All Saints Church at Kingston upon Thames (interior).

Source: Pam Fray.

Robert Skern

Painting of All Saints Church at Kingston upon Thames (exterior) from 1900.

Robert Skern

Drawing of Joan and Robert Skern.

Robert Skern

All Saints Church at Kingston upon Thames (interior).

Source: Pam Fray.

Roger James

Brass rubbing of Roger James including body, shield, and inscription.

Roger James

Church of All Hallows at Tottenham (exterior).

Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Roger James

Church of All Hallows at Tottenham (interior).

Reproduced by permission of Kenneth Mays and Richard Lambert

Phillipa Carew

Philippa's brothers and sisters pictured with her on the monument.

Phillipa Carew

Carew Manor at Beddington, Surrey.

Phillipa Carew

Illustration of the brass of Philippa's father, Nicholas Carew, and his first wife, Isabel.

Phillipa Carew

Church of St. Mary the Virgin at Beddington, Surrey (exterior).

Sons of Joan, Lady Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (exterior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Sons of Joan, Lady Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (interior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Sons of Joan, Lady Cobham

Brass rubbing of Lady Cobham including her sons and daughters, six shields, and the inscription.

With the permission of the Brass Rubbings Collection, Hamline University.

Daughters of Joan, Lady of Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (exterior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Daughters of Joan, Lady of Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (interior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Daughters of Joan, Lady of Cobham

Brass rubbing of Lady Cobham including her sons and daughters, six shields, and the inscription.

With the permission of the Brass Rubbings Collection, Hamline University.

Lady in a Heraldic Mantle

St. Helen's Bishopsgate Church in the City of London (interior).

Lady in a Heraldic Mantle

St. Helen's Bishopsgate Church in the City of London (exterior).

Lady in a Heraldic Mantle

Brass monument of the lady

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Iso von Wölpe

St. Andrew's Church, Verden (interior).

Iso von Wölpe

Illustration done in 1823 of Wölpe castle.

Iso von Wölpe

17th-century illustrated map of Verden showing St. Andrews Church and the city wall.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Iso von Wölpe

Illustration done in 1823 of Wölpe castle.

John Cobham

John de Cobham's seal on the wall at Cooling Castle at Cooling, Kent.

John Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (exterior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John Cobham

Church of Mary Magdalene at Cobham, Kent (interior).

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John Cobham

Brass monument of John de Cobham.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John Cobham

Alternative image of the interior of the Church of Mary Magdalene.

John Cobham

Alternative image of Cobham College.

John Cobham

Cobham College at Cobham, Kent.

John Cobham

Brass rubbing of Sir John with parts of the inscription and canopy.

John Cobham

Brass rubbing of John de Cobham including a canopy and two shields.

Thomas Urswick

The Urswycks' brass monument.

Thomas Urswick

The interior of St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset is in partial view. Two other tomb monuments are visible.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Thomas Urswick

St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset (interior).

Thomas Urswick

Drawing of Lady Urswyck, Sir Thomas Urswyck, shields, and their children.

Thomas Urswick

St. Peter and St. Paul's Church at South Petherton, Somerset (exterior).

Thomas Urswick

Urswycks' tomb chest.

John Leventhorp

Brass monument of John Leventhorp

Permission granted by Graham Field.

John Leventhorp

CAPTION NEEDED

John Leventhorp

Brass rubbing of John Leventhorp including inscription.

John Leventhorp

St. Helen’s Church at Bishopsgate (exterior).

© Christine Matthews, used under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

John Leventhorp

St. Helen’s Church at Bishopsgate (interior).

Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Maud Cobham

Brass monument of Maud Cobham.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Maud Cobham

Brass rubbing of Maud Cobham including canopy, shields, and an inscription around the frame.

Maud Cobham

Church of St. Mary Magdalene (exterior).

Reproduced by permission of the Medieval Combat Society.

Maud Cobham

Church of St. Mary Magdalene (interior).

Reproduced by permission of the Medieval Combat Society.

Eleanor de Bohun

Brass rubbing of Eleanor de Bohun's monument including the canopy and heraldic shields.

Eleanor de Bohun

Lost brass from 1397 of Thomas of Woodstock, Eleanor de Bohun's husband.

Permission granted by Graham Field.

Eleanor de Bohun

Eleanor de Bohun's tomb at Westminster Abbey.

Eleanor de Bohun

Westminster Abbey (exterior).

Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Eleanor de Bohun

Westminster Abbey (interior).

Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Johann Rode

Bremen Cathedral (interior).

© Jurgen Howaldt, used under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Johann Rode

Bremen Cathedral.

Johann Rode

Rode coat of arms.

Resurrection Brass

Church of All Hallows by the Tower at Barking (interior).

Resurrection Brass

Church of All Hallows by the Tower at Barking (exterior).

Resurrection Brass

William Penn’s memorial at All Hallows Church which his father saved from the Great London Fire.

© Alan Levine, used under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Church of All Hallows at Tottenham (exterior).

Reproduced by permission of Kenneth Mays and Richard Lambert.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Church of All Hallows at Tottenham (interior).

Reproduced by permission of Kenneth Mays and Richard Lambert.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Close up of Margaret Irby on the Barkham family memorial.

Reproduced by permission of the Layston Church.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Barkham family memorial including Margaret Irby and her father, Sir Edward Barkham.

Reproduced by permission of the Layston Church.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Close up of Sir Edward Barkham, Margaret Irby's father, on the Barkham family memorial.

Reproduced by permission of the Layston Church.

Margaret Irby's Daughters

Brass rubbing of Margaret Irby and her three daughters.

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